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Emerald
Although coming from the French word “esmeralda” modestly meaning green gemstone, Emerald is one of the most coveted of colored gemstones in the world. Emerald is the pride of the beryl family and can get its various green colors from the addition of chromium and/or vanadium. Emeralds generally have inclusions, which can detract from their value, but not as much as it can from other gemstones. These inclusions are usually black and make the stone more brittle than purer colored stones. Most Emeralds have tiny cracks that are treated by filling with oil or resin to help stabilize the stone.

Color is at utmost importance to an Emerald, and they can range from bright grass green to bluish and clear to heavily included or even cloudy, whose inclusions may appear more jadeite-like. Intense green Emeralds can rival diamonds and rubies in cost. This vibrant green gemstone has a vitreous luster, with conchoidal fracture to its crystal structure, which accounts for its cuts typically resulting in square shapes. Rectangles and squares are the most common faceting choices for Emerald, hence the term for the rectangle “Emerald Cut”, but marquise, oval, round, and pillow or cushion shapes are also popular. Smooth, unfaceted Emerald cabochons are also ideal for pendants and earrings. Lower priced, faintly colored stones with hues of green aventurine, often with numerous black inclusions, are still valued for their beauty.

Emeralds have been collected for their mesmerizing, sleepy green color for centuries, as far back as 3000 B.C., and every head of state from Egyptian pharaohs and Indian maharajas to Turkish sultans and Queen Elizabeth II have included them in their estate jewelry. Emeralds can be set in silver, gold and mixed metal-tones and are often coupled with other beryl. Commonly matched gems are blues, yellows, pearls and clear stones.
Compound : Aluminum Beryllium Silicate
Mohs Scale(Hardness) : 7.5-8
Found : Afghanistan, Brazil, Colombia, India, Madagascar, Pakistan, Russia, Zambia, Zimbabwe