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Topaz
Despite being most commonly yellow in color, the name Topaz actually comes from the Greek for "green gemstone". There are, however, suggestions that the name could stem from either Sanskrit or Arabic as well, which would indicate other meanings. Topaz can come in a myriad of colors, from brilliant pink to blue to green, and to yellow. In some instances, topaz can be clear in color. This is because pure Topaz contains no color; like many colored gemstones, its coloring is attributed to impurities found within it. Yellow Topaz is the birthstone for November and is the most common variety. Naturally occurring blue Topaz is the rarest, and therefore most desired due to scarcity.

Topaz has been mentioned in the Bible as one of the twelve precious stones that made up the first row of precious stones on Aaron’s breastplate known as the Hoshen. To some cultures this gives it a spiritual importance in addition to its commercial value. Even though it has a hardness of eight on the Mohs Scale, it is still considered a brittle stone. In jewelry, it is usually faceted in order to showcase its fiery transparency and glossy luster, which is further showcased in silver settings.

Siberia and Brazil are known to be homes of the largest Topaz regions; before it was mined in these areas, only small fragments were ever discovered. The Topaz mounted within the Portuguese crown -- the Braganza -- weighs in at an impressive 1680 carats. Topaz now shares the spotlight with other golden stones such as citrine, which was lauded as "gold topaz" when first discovered. Topaz holds deep cuts well and is usually faceted into round, oval, teardrop, and oval stones. It is well-suited to spring and summer designs, particularly with fruit-colored peridot, citrine, garnet, and amber, and with watery blues such as aquamarine and other Topazes.
Compound : Fluorine Aluminum Silicate
Mohs Scale(Hardness) : 8
Found : Afghanistan, Australia, Brazil, Czech Republic, Germany, Japan, Mexico, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Russia, Siberia, Sri Lanka, Sweden, U.S.